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Turunen Esa

Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory


Authors: E. Turunen( Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Finland)
Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory (SGO) of University of Oulu, Finland, carries out geophysical measurements and related research at high latitude in the Arctic for more than 100 years now. In addition to hosting one of the instrument arrays of Swedish-Finnish Infrasound Network, SGO has several instruments, which produce continuous aeronomical data from mesosphere and thermosphere and would support the ARISE concept. Hosted instruments include a Fabry-Perot interferometer by University College London for thermospheric winds, SKiYMET meteor radar for winds in mesosphere-lower thermosphere and all sky cameras including a new fast 100 Hz camera by ISEE/ Nagoya University. We emphasize new opportunities using latest remote sensing of the upper atmosphere by advanced radio methods. New software-defined-radio type of instruments include the Kilpisjarvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array, KAIRA facility, which serves as a platform to develop EISCAT_3D type radar reception by simultaneous multiple beams and offers a world-wide new instrumental method, spectral riometry which is a wide-band imaging radiometer method revealing altitude profile of electron density. Spectral riometry will be implemented on the new riometer network, which is under construction. SGO has been running an ionospheric vertical sounder since 1957 and the data was used to study the long-term cooling of the thermosphere. SGO has developed a small version of SDR-based receiver for its current ionospheric chirp sounder and will in future make mapping of ionosphere in larger spatial scales by oblique soundings with a network of these receivers. In collaboration with Finnish Meterological Institute, satellite tomography method is enhanced by a new network of receivers, which allow 3D reconstructions of F-region electron density. SGO also actively participates in developing the next generation incoherent scatter radar EISCAT_3D, which is a phased-array facility with several tens of thousands of antennas, to be distributed in 3 stations across 3 countries in Northern Scandinavia. EISCAT_3D will be a vector imaging radar studying the geospace and atmospheric environment, supporting studies of couplings between space environment and atmospheric layers. EISCAT_3D will be capable of measuring true 3D volumetric wind fields continuously at mesospheric altitudes. SGO's Radio Science Laboratory develops also stand-alone precursor measurements which use EISCAT_3D principles before the construction of EISCAT_3D. One of the main research interests of SGO is the influence of solar forcing on climate and weather. SGO has developed a detailed coupled neutral and ion-chemistry model, the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry model (SIC), which today is also incorporated as a module in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, WACCM. The currently well-validated SIC model could be used to enhance interpretations of data from the ARISE research infrastructure, in order to study interplay of chemistry and dynamics in the middle and upper atmosphere.

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